Riboni and Bettini have proposed a techinique for human activity recognition using ontologies and ontological reasoning combined with statistical inferencing . The technique does not relies on large amount of training data which is difficult to obtain in applications such as rehabilitation systems, chronic disease management or monitoring of the elderly.
 Riboni, Daniele, and Claudio Bettini. ‘Context-Aware Activity Recognition Through a Combination of Ontological and Statistical Reasoning’. In Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Ubiquitous Intelligence and Computing, 39–53. UIC ’09. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, 2009. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-02830-4_5.